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Children and Young People

330: Validation of the Borderline Personality Features Scale for Children (BPFS-C) in a non-clinical adolescent Portuguese sample
Ana Loureiro, Paula Castilho
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Coimbra, Portugal; Center for Research in Neuropsychology and Cognitive Behavioral Intervention. Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Coimbra, Portugal

Introduction:
There are multiple studies that established that Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a serious disorder with onset in adolescence. However, there aren’t many measures developed to assess Borderline features in children and adolescence. Therefore, this study aims to validate the Portuguese version of the Borderline Personality Features Scale for Children (BPFS-C), analyse the psychometric properties of the BPFS-C, and explore its factor structure (EFA and CFA).
Method:
Adolescents from 14 to 18 years old were invited to fill in a series of self-report instruments, measuring Borderline features; depression, anxiety and stress; internal shame; self-compassion; fear of compassion; NSSI, suicide ideation and impulse.
Results:
This is an ongoing study and we expect to have results by June 2018. Since we are still in the process of collecting and processing data, there are no results. However, the analysis will allow a psychometric study of the scale.

325: Piloting a CBT group therapy among psychologically distressed female university students
Johanna Bernhardsdottir, Runar Vilhjalmsson, University of Iceland

Psychological distress including stress, anxiety and depression is common among university students’ especially females. An Icelandic cross-sectional prevalence study found that one in five female university students experience psychological distress.The purpose of this study was to explore female students´mean stress, anxiety and depression levels on the DASS questionnaire, as part of pilot testing this intervention, pre and post intervention.
The Cognitive Behavioural Group program was conducted in 6 consecutive weekly group sessions for 90 minutes. The intervention group was divided into three sub-groups with five women enrolled in each group. All had been screened with psychological stress prior to the intervention.The study design was quantitative with a pre- post intervention design. The questionnaire consisted of the 42 items DASS instrument and questions on background variables. The sample consisted of 15 undergraduate and graduate female students. Their age ranged from 21-42, and 60% were employed part-time. Most were cohabiting or married (60%). Others were single or in a steady relationship (40%). Sixty seven percent were childless.  The results of this preliminary pilot study, with a paired sample t-test, revealed that participants‘mean depression score on the DASS instrument had decreased significantly from pre to post intervention. Symptoms of anxiety and stress had also decreased but not significantly. However, females who had exhibited serious to very serious levels of stress and anxiety pre-test decreased the most post intervention. The results, will be presented in more detail at the conference as well as the implications for this intervention.

313: The prevalence of trauma related disorders in children and adolescents affected by severe forest fires
Daniel Rijo, Ana Fonseca, Helena Moreira, Joana Pereira, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Center for Research in Neuropsychology and Cognitive Behavioral Intervention (CINEICC), University of Coimbra;  Paula Vagos, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Center for Research in Neuropsychology and Cognitive Behavioral Intervention (CINEICC), University of Coimbra;  The Portucalense Institute for Human Development, University of Portucalense; Maria Cristina Canavarro, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Center for Research in Neuropsychology and Cognitive Behavioral Intervention (CINEICC), University of Coimbra.

Introduction:
In 2017, the Central Region of Portugal were extremely affected by forest fires. Given the lack of knowledge about the psychological impact of these events, this project aims to assess the prevalence of trauma related disorders in children and adolescents of this region through a screening tool developed for this purpose and provide them with specialized intervention.
Method:
In this cross sectional study, 2559 children and adolescents (aged between 6 and 18 years old) from 6 municipalities of the Central Region of Portugal will be clinically assessed by a psychologist through a computer assisted screening tool. This tool is based on the DSM-V criteria and on the M.I.N.I Kid interview and assesses post-traumatic symptomatology and other types of symptomatology including grief, drop in school achievement, and separation anxiety.
Results:
To date, 1344 children/adolescents were already assessed. Of these, 296 (22%) reported relevant symptomatology: post-traumatic symptoms (8.1%), drop in school achievement (4.1%) and hyperactivity and attention deficit symptoms (3.3%). More detailed results will be presented at the congress.
Discussion:
This project will contribute to identify children/adolescents with relevant symptomatology and to provide them with specialized psychological intervention. A structured intervention, based on trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for children and adolescents, will be made available to children/adolescents reporting significant symptomatology. Specific measures of child post-traumatic cognitions and symptoms, cognitive and emotion regulation, impact of event and quality of life will be assessed through self-report measures and treatment effects on these symptoms will be assessed during and after intervention (longitudinal design).

 

312: Differences within early maladaptive schemas in healthy young adults with or without experience of childhood sexual abuse
Maria Durianova, Marta Popelkova,  Antonia Kotianova, Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic; Michaela Chupáčová, Michal Kotian, Psychagogia s.r.o, Liptovsky Mikulas, Slovak Republic;  Jan Prasko 1*,3*, Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic; Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University Palacky Olomouc, University Hospital, Olomouc, Czech Republic; Milos Slepecky, Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic

Introduction:
Aversive experiences during childhood are considered as the main predictor of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and they are also connected with several psychological and psychiatric problems in adulthood. Sexual abuse is a worldwide problem, which has often negative impact on individual’s life and can lead to psychological and interpersonal problems. The aim of this study is to observe the differences within EMS in individuals with or without experience of sexual abuse during childhood.
Method:
We used Adverse Childhood Experiences – International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ) to find out adverse traumatic experiences during childhood. This questionnaire has 36 items of different categories, Contact sexual abuse included. Young Schema Questionnaire – Short Form (YSQ-S3) was used to evaluate of participants‘ EMS. It consists of 90 items resulting to 18 different EMS (e.g. Emotional Deprivation, Mistrust/Abuse, Failure, Self-sacrifice).
Results:
Participants, which experienced contact sexual abuse during childhood, scored higher only in  unconditional schema Mistrust/Abuse and in conditional EMS Entitetment/Grandiosity, Insufficient Self-control/Self-discipline and Approval-seeking/Recognition-seeking in comparision with participants without experience of sexual abuse.
Conclusion:
It appears that sexual abuse was not strongly involved in development of EMS in our sample of healthy young people. It is contradictory to assumption about role of sexual abuse in development of EMS in clinic population. More research is needed to clarify which factors mediate development of EMS after experience of sexual abuse to know how to provide better treatment for these patients.

 

308: A qualitative study of adolescents’ use and perception of Internet-delivered CBT: the case of Social Anxiety Disorder
Fredrik Enoksson, Stefan Hrastinski, Martina Nordh and Jens Högström,
1) KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; 2) Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, 3) Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council

Introduction:
Research on Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) for adults indicates that it is a feasible treatment for several psychological conditions, which also maintain effect when implemented in clinical settings. ICBT for children and adolescents has been less researched, but results so far show promising results. The Internet, and associated technologies, enables new possibilities to deliver CBT and therefor also a multifold of design choices can be made for ICBT treatments, e.g. which technologies to use and in what way. The research field of human computer interaction teach us that users´ perception and willingness to use a digital artefact is influenced by how it is designed. Thus, informed choices need made in the design process of an ICBT treatment to make sure that the patients perceive the digital artefact as something that can help them in reducing their symptoms. The study presented here explores how adolescent patients perceive the combination ICBT treatment and its accompanying digital platform and how they use that platform. The purpose is to gain further insights of how ICBT treatment and their digital platform is to be designed.
Method:
Participants were recruited from a pilot study where 30 adolescents (aged 13-17), diagnosed with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), received ICBT treatment via a digital platform. Upon inclusion in the pilot study the patient had the option to also partake in this study, which 7 patients agreed to. The participants´ perceptions was explored through home visits at the first time they used the digital platform. Data was collected in three steps:  a short semi-structured interview before they used the platform, focused on their expectations, a recording of the screen together with the audio in the room, to capture the interaction. The participants were also asked to “talk aloud” about what they were thinking, especially when they did not know what to do. A short semi-structured interview after to capture more about their perceptions.
Results:
Data is currently being analyzed, using qualitative methods. The result will be presented on the poster at the conference. In general, the adolescent had no problem using the digital platform and they seem to perceive that this was something that would help them in their treatment. One interesting preliminary finding from the analysis of the screen recordings were situations where the adolescents spent relatively long time to provide expected written input to their therapist. The time could be spent quietly thinking and retyping several times, or discussing with their parents (if they were present). The richness of what they externalized with their parents was however not always represented in what they ended up writing. Though, the patient doesn’t seem to directly perceive this as a problem as they do not bring this up in the interview in step 3.
Discussion:
The positive result found on how the platform was perceived in general is probably what to be expected, as the participants were aware that the treatment would be Internet-delivered. With further analysis, we hope to also gain further insights on what they perceived as difficult to understand, unclear, misunderstood etc. and also why. This could potentially inform a discussion on how digital platforms used for ICBT treatment should function.

 

303: Which adverse childhood experiences are most related to early maladaptive schemas in healthy young adults?
Michaela Chupáčová, Psychagogia s.r.o, Liptovsky Mikulas, Slovak Republic;Maria Durianova; Antonia Kotianova; Marta Popelkova, Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic;  Michal Kotian, Psychagogia s.r.o, Liptovsky Mikulas, Slovak Republic; Jan Prasko, Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic; Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University Palacky Olomouc, University Hospital, Olomouc, Czech Republic; Milos Slepecky, Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic

Introduction:
The childhood adversities could be an important factor in the development and maintenance of several psychological problems or psychiatric disorders in adults. The mechanism of this connection is so far unclear. Studies suggest, that early maladaptive schemas (EMS) are related with several psychiatric disorders. EMS could be that mechanism, which connect childhood adverse experiences with mental problems. Therefore, the aim of this study is to observe the relationship between childhood adversities and EMS.
Method:
We used Adverse Childhood Experiences – International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ) to find out adverse traumatic experiences during childhood. This questionnaire has 36 items of different categories (e.g. Physical violence, Emotional abuse, Divorce, Collective violence). Young Schema Questionnaire – Short Form (YSQ-S3) was used to evaluation of participants‘ schemas. It consits of 90 items resulting to 18 different EMS (e.g. Emotional Deprivation, Mistrust/Abuse, Failure, Self-sacrifice).
Results:
150 participants in age 20-30 years were included in the study. There was significant connection between childhood experience of someone chronically depressed, mentally ill, institutionalized or suicidal in the familly with 9 different EMS. Physical abuse was related with 7 different EMS. Physical neglect with  6 EMS. Both, Emotional Neglect and Collective violence was connected with 5 schemas.
Conclusion:
Results suggest, that experience of chronically depressed or mental ill person within familly in early childhood could be connected with development of largest amount EMS. Therapists should give special attention to patients' childhood experiences with their mentally ill relatives.

 

286: CBT interventions for adolescents refusing school – a comic strip for help
Irena Šinigoj Batistič, Zarja psihološke storitve s.p., Nova Gorica, Slovenija

School refusal especially excessive school absence is a common problem in adolescents. It derives from many different etiologies from separation anxiety, social and specific phobias, panic disorder,health anxiety and many others. It commonly has a function of avoidance from negative consequences in means of unpleasant emotions or evaluation or obtaining positive reinforcement like parents attention, additional time for computer games etc. I present some cases of adolescents with difficulties attending school appearing from different dynamics (panic attacks, health anxiety, escaping from evaluation) and their outcomes. As a great deal of interventions are common in all cases, I am thinking about finding efficient ways to reach adolescents and provide them with basic education and orientation for coping. I am preparing a comic strip with some stories of adolescents so that they can recognize their issues. They receive basic education to understand mechanisms and connections in between, find major guidelines for action and get some optimism for change.

 

280: Efficacy of a Danish version of the guided ICBT program ChilledOut Online for Youth with Anxiety Disorders
Silke Stjerneklar, Esben Hougaard, Mikael Thastum, Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark

Background:
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adolescence, but access to health care services is limited and only a small proportion receive professional help. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) has been proposed to increase accessibility and reduce costs of treatment.
Objective:
The study evaluated the efficacy of a Danish version of the guided ICBT program ChilledOut Online, developed at the Centre for Emotional Health, Macquarie University, Australia.
Methodology:
At the Centre for Psychological Treatment of Children and Adolescents, Aarhus University, Denmark, a randomized controlled trial was conducted with 70 adolescents (13–17 years) with anxiety disorders. Participants were randomly assigned to 14 weeks of therapist-guided ICBT or to a waitlist control condition. Outcome was evaluated post-treatment and at 3- and 12-month follow-up using Clinical Severity Ratings (CSR) and self–reported questionnaires.
Results:
At post-treatment, the ICBT group significantly outperformed the waitlist condition with moderate to large between-group effect sizes on diagnostic severity and anxiety symptoms as rated by clinicians, adolescents and their parents. Forty percent of adolescents in ICBT were free of their primary diagnosis compared to 16% in the waitlist condition. Treatment gains were maintained at 3- and 12-month follow-up.
Conclusions:
Results of the study provide support for the efficacy of guided ICBT for adolescents with anxiety disorders, confirming the potential of this treatment method to minimize current gaps in mental health services.

 

279: The predictive role of negative and positive affect on the cardiac response to stress in adolescents
Aina Fiol-Veny, University of the Balearic Islands; Alejandro De la Torre-Luque, University Autonomous of Madrid; Xavier Bornas, Jordi Llabrés, Maria Balle, University of the Balearic Islands 

Introduction:
A diminished heart rate variability (HRV) implies lower cardiac flexibility and this has been related with several psychopathological problems. Negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) play an important role as risk or protective factors, respectively, on the development of some of these problems. A few studies have shown the relationship between NA and cardiac reactivity and recovery when confronting a stressor. However, little is known about the relationship with PA and cardiac response under stress, especially in adolescents.
Aims and method:
This study examines the relationship of both PA and NA, with the cardiac response during and after confronting a stressor. The sample was composed by 92 healthy adolescents (M = 13.36 years; SD = 0.68; 44.6% boys). The participants completed the PANAS questionnaire and 3 months later, their cardiac activity was recorded during a laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). HRV and cardiac complexity measures were calculated and linear regressions were performed.
Results:
The NA predicted the HRV at recovery, showing that the higher the NA, the lower the HRV. The PA significantly predicted HRV during the recovery and also during the stress task, showing that the higher the PA, the higher the HRV.
Discussion:
These results indicate that adolescents who have high NA and those who have low PA manifest lower cardiac flexibility when confront or when recover from a stressor. This tendency to experience more negative or less positive emotions might influence the exhibition of maladaptive cardiac responses in stressful situations.

 

277: The relationship between rumination, cardiovascular recovery from stress and internalizing symptoms in adolescents
Maria Balle,  Aina Fiol-Veny,University of Balearic Islands; Alejandro de la Torre-Luque, University Autonomous of Madrid, Jordi Llabrés, Xavier Bornas, University of Balearic Islands;

Introduction:
Previous research suggests that rumination may be one mechanism linking stress with depression and anxiety, although mechanisms underlying this relationship remain inadequately understood. It seems that individuals who habitually ruminate exhibit maladaptive physiological responses to stress, such as slower cardiovascular recovery. Moreover, a maladaptive heart pattern in stress situations could be an indicator of internalizing problems. The high incidence of these problems during adolescence, and the inconclusive data on rumination in infant and juvenile literature justify their study in this population.
Objectives and Method:
The current study examined whether rumination moderated the relationship between cardiovascular recovery from a standardized laboratory-based stressor and anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescents, measured with the Revised Children’s Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS). A sample of 89 adolescents (55.4% female) aged 13–17 completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and cardiac response was obtained during and after the TSST.
Results:
On the one hand, the findings indicated that rumination moderated the relationship between cardiac entropy during recovery from stress and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, rumination moderated the relationship between heart rate variability at recovery and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but did not moderate the relationship with the rest of anxiety symptomatology.
Discussion:
This study reports new findings about the role of rumination in the association between stress cardiac recovery and internalizing symptoms. It seems that rumination increase the depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptomatology when the cardiac pattern is maladaptive after a stressor, functioning as a possible mechanism that increases the risk for these psychopathologies.   

 

264: Preventing and reducing bullying and cyberbullying by teaching adolescents that people can change
Esther Calvete, Izaskun Orue, Liria Fernández-González, Nerea Cortazar, Angel Prieto, Estibaliz Royuela-Colomer, University of Deusto

Face to face bullying and cyberbullying are prevalent problems for children and schools around the world and they have important consequences for both victims and aggressors. Therefore, it is important to design and evaluate universal interventions to prevent and intervene in these types of behaviors. Previous studies have found that interventions aimed to teach that people can change (i.e., incremental theory of personality) are effective to reduce symptoms such as depression or stress. This study aimed to test whether a brief intervention based on the incremental theory of personality reduces bullying and cyberbullying perpetration and victimization over time.  A total of 868 Spanish adolescents (50.8% boys, aged between 13 and 18) participated in the present study. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental intervention based on an incremental theory of personality (n = 452) vs an educational control intervention (n = 416). Adolescents completed measures of both perpetration and victimization of traditional bullying and cyberbullying at pretest and at a 6-month follow-up. We used repeated measures ANOVA, with time of measurement (pre-treatment vs 6-month follow-up) as the within-subjects variable, and group (experimental vs control) and scholar year (8º, 9º, or 10º grade) as between-subjects variables. The results indicated that the interaction Time × Group was statistically significant for the four dependent variables (bullying perpetration, bullying victimization, cyberbullying perpetration and cyberbullying victimization), indicating that the intervention based on the incremental theory reduced these problems more than the educational control intervention. Furthermore, the Time × Group × Scholar year interaction was also statistically significant and indicated that the incremental theory condition reduced bullying and cyberbullying especially among 10 graders. The results of this study show promising evidence about the utility of this type of brief intervention based on the idea that people can change to prevent and reduce traditional and cyber bullying behaviors.  

 

245: The Lived Experience of Anhedonia in a Community Sample of Adolescents with Depressive Symptoms
Rebecca Watson, Kate Harvey, Ciara McCabe, Shirley Reynolds, University of Reading

Introduction:
Anhedonia is defined by DSM-5 as the loss of interest or pleasure in most activities, most of the time (APA, 2013). It is a core symptom of Major Depressive Disorder, and a feature of other neuropsychiatric disorders. To date, the subjective experience of anhedonia has not been explored using qualitative methods.
Method:
Participants were twenty two adolescents (10 females; 12 males) aged between 13 and 18 recruited via secondary schools in England. Adolescents were purposively sampled based on elevated depression scores (Mood and Feelings Questionnaire), as well as age and gender. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted by the researcher to elicit in-depth accounts of adolescents’ experiences. The topic  guide  explored  the  following:  a)  Current  and  past  interest  and  hobbies;  b)  Future  plans;  c)  Changes  in  enjoyment;  and  d)  Loss  of   enjoyment.
Results:
Constant comparative  techniques  were  used  to  analyse  the  data,  based  on  Braun  and  Clark’s  (2006)  six  stage  thematic  analysis.  Five major themes emerged: 1) Positive Affect & Emotional Flattening; 2) Incentive and Motivation; 3) Connectedness; 3) Agency and Control; and 5) Reflection, Perspective and Outlook.
Discussion:
These findings develop our understanding of how anhedonia is experienced and understood by adolescents with depressive symptoms. This may have implications for how we identify and assess the symptom of anhedonia in depression.

 

243: Parents’ Perspectives About Their Experience in the ACT–Raising Safe Kids Program: Perceived changes and barriers
Ramos, F.,Pereira, A. I., Marques, T., Faculty of Psychology, University of Lisbon

The present study examined parents’ perspective about their experience and participation in the ACT-Raising Safe Kids Program (RSK), a universal parenting program to prevent child maltreatment. The sample consisted of 9 mothers and 1 father of 3 to 8 years old children who completed the ACT-RSK. Parental perspectives were assessed through a semi-structured face-to-face interview. Content analysis and descriptive statistical procedures were used to analyze the data. Findings indicate that parents choose to participate because they needed help to solve specific problems, wanted to improve parenting abilities and knowledge, and share experiences. As result of participating in the ACT-RSK, parents reported an increased awareness of parenting behaviors, an adjustment of expectations and acquisition of information. They also perceived an increased emotional self-regulation, self-efficacy and use of positive parenting practices. Implications of these findings are discussed and future research questions are addressed.

 

234: Therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive–behavioural therapy supplemented with group exposure sessions for adolescents with social anxiety disorder: a feasibility trial.
Martina Nordh, Sarah Vigerland, Centre for Psychiatry Research and Education, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden; Lars-Göran Öst, Department of Psychology, Stockholms Universitet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Brjánn Ljótsson, Centre for Psychiatry Research and Education, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Mataix-Cols, Eva Serlachius, Jens Högström, Centre for Psychiatry Research and Education, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden;

Introduction:
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in youth, with a 12-month prevalence of about 3-4%. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered the first line of treatment for youth with SAD but many adolescents remain untreated due to limited accessibility to CBT. The aim of this trial was to develop and evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a guided Internet-delivered CBT treatment, supplemented by clinic-based group-exposure sessions.
Method:
This was a proof-of-concept study evaluating the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of combined Internet- and group-CBT for adolescents with SAD. The trial was conducted at a child psychiatric research clinic and participants (N = 30) were 13-17 years old (83% girls) with a primary diagnosis of SAD. The intervention was 12 weeks long, consisting of nine remote therapist-guided Internet-delivered CBT sessions and three group-CBT sessions at the clinic.
Results:
Participants were generally satisfied with the treatment. Completion-rate of Internet-modules, and attendance at group-sessions were high, indicating that the treatment is feasible and acceptable. Post-treatment assessment showed a significant decrease in clinician-, adolescent-, and parent-rated social anxiety (d = 1.13, 0.82 and 0.87 respectively), as well as in general anxiety and depression (d = 0.52 and 0.78), compared with pre-treatment levels. With regard to diagnostic status, 47% of participants no longer met DSM-5 criteria for SAD at post-treatment. Results were maintained or further improved to follow-up after 6 months.
Conclusion:
Internet-delivered CBT, supplemented by a limited number of group-exposure sessions is a promising intervention for adolescents with SAD.

 

215: The Impact of Schema Modes on Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: The Mediator Role of Emotion Regulation Difficulties
Gülşah Durna, Selva Ülbe, A. Esin Yılmaz, Psychology Department of Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir, Turkey

In recent years, non-suicidal self-injury (e.g., banging, hair pulling, pinching etc.) has become clinically significant condition especially among adolescents and young adults. However, uncertainty regarding the mechanisms underlying the self-injury is still ongoing. In few studies schema modes, considered as emotional and cognitive patterns shaping an individual’s behaviors, were found to be related to the age of onset, duration and number of self-injurious behaviors. Furthermore, the self-injurious behaviors were found to have some maladaptive emotion regulatory functions such as reducing negative feelings and thoughts and avoiding self-punishment. However, such maladaptive strategies might cause schemas developed in childhood to become dysfunctional in adulthood. In this regard, the present study aimed to investigate the mediator role of emotion regulation difficulties on the relationship between schema modes and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior. The sample will consist of at least 500 university students. The instrument set will include Demographic Information Form, Schema Mode Inventory, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Inventory of Statements about Self-injury. Correlation and mediation analyses will be conducted to evaluate the hypotheses. The results will be discussed within the scope of related literature. The findings of planned research will contribute to the literature by displaying how difficulties in emotion regulation have an intermediary function in the relationship between schema modes and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior. The understanding of the functions of these behaviors will provide important implications for the development and implementation of relevant treatment strategies.

 

201: Cognitive training among youth with ADHD
Amélie Dentz, Marie-Claude Guay, Bruno Gauthier, Parent Véronique, Romo Lucia, University of Fribourg, University Paris Ouest Nanterre la Defense, University of Quebec at Montréal, University Of montréal, University of Sherbrooke

The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of the Cogmed training program on working memory among youths 7 to 13 years old, while controlling presence and presentation of ADHD-related comorbidity. A secondary objective was to examine the generalization of effects to ADHD symptoms, non-verbal reasoning, attentional and executive functions, inhibition, reading comprehension, and mathematical reasoning. Participants were under pharmacological treatment for ADHD combined presentation and a comorbidity. They were randomized into an experimental group that received the Cogmed program and an active control group that received a low-intensity comparison version of the training. They were evaluated at three time points. Results indicate no significant effect attributable to the Cogmed program. Moreover, cognitive training did not lead to a reduction in ADHD symptoms or to an improvement in the other cognitive functions measured or in academic achievement. The results of this study do not demonstrate the effectiveness of the Cogmed program for youths with ADHD combined presentation and a comorbidity when training is received while medicated.

 

188: Inclusiveness of cognitive bias modification research toward children and young people with neurodevelopmental disorders: a systematic review
Nora Baldus, Leen Vereenooghe, Bielefeld University

Introduction:
Interpersonal cognitive bias may be present in children and young people (CYP) regardless of any special educational needs or diagnoses of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD), yet cognitive bias modification (CBM) and attribution retraining studies focused on NDD are sparse. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the extent to which CYP with NDD have been included or explicitly excluded from intervention studies targeting interpersonal cognitive bias with the objective to explore the effectiveness of such interventions in CYP with NDD.
Method:
The electronic databases PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Science Citation Index were searched using a combination of MeSH terms and synonyms of ‘review’, ‘cognitive bias’, ‘modification’, ‘neurodevelopmental disorder’ and ‘mental health problems’. Trials of CBM or attribution retraining for interpersonal cognitive bias, defined as selectively interpreting, recalling or attending to ambiguous interpersonal stimuli, involving CYP were identified through previously published systematic reviews, backward reference searching and contacting authors. These primary studies were then reviewed to determine the proportion of CYP with NDD included in their trials and to evaluate the effectiveness of CBM and attribution retraining for these participants. Where NDD or special needs were listed as an exclusion criteria within the primary study, the justification for exclusion was critically examined.
Results:
The database search yielded 2120 records. Of the 35 identified primary CBM- or attribution retraining studies for CYP that were retained for the qualitative synthesis, only one included participants with NDD. This single study adapted CBM for adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) by using computerised audio-supported one-to-one training, which successfully reduced adolescents’ interpretation bias and social anxiety. At least one third of intervention studies employed explicit NDD-related exclusion criteria, such as excluding participants with intellectual impairment, Tourette’s syndrome, reading difficulties, learning difficulties, autistic spectrum disorder and special education status. These exclusion criteria were applied because the limited reading abilities associated with such diagnoses were considered to be incompatible with the reading demands of traditional CBM interventions.
Discussion and Conclusion:
All CBM or attribution retraining studies for CYP, apart from one study, either did not include participants with NDD or explicitly excluded them. Task demands, in terms of reading and intellectual abilities, were stated as reasons for excluding participants with NDD. Increasing the accessibility of CBM interventions for CYP with NDD through adapting training materials would be a step forward in light of evidence for interpersonal cognitive biases in this population, such as for the aggression-related hostile attribution bias and the anxiety-related interpretation bias in ID. Future studies should build on the single CBM study that targeted cognitive biases in NDD, which successfully improved both bias and social anxiety in CYP with ID. It should also be investigated whether accessible CBM interventions could prove helpful in reducing the hostile attribution bias and its associated internalising and externalising problems in CYP with ID, other NDD or special educational needs and disabilities.

 

187: Processing of interpersonal ambiguity in children and young people with neurodevelopmental disorders: a systematic review
Nora Baldus, Leen Vereenooghe, Bielefeld University

Introduction:
Interpersonal cognitive biases play a role in the cause and maintenance of internalising- and externalising problems. These problems may be more prevalent in children and young people (CYP) with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) than in typically developing CYP. This systematic review aims to provide a first overview of interpersonal cognitive biases in CYP with NDD.
Method:
A systematic search of the PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Science Citation Indexdatabases was conducted using a combination of MeSH terms and synonyms of ‘CYP’, ‘NDD’, ‘cognitive bias’ and ‘modification’. Review eligibility criteria included participants under the age of 18 with NDD, as defined by the DSM-5, and assessed interpretation-, memory- or attention bias towards ambiguous interpersonal stimuli, defined as scenarios, images, faces or text that involve at least two people and have unresolved overall meaning due to the presence of unclear social cues. Data extraction for primary outcome variables included the extent of interpersonal cognitive bias, whilst measures of internalising and externalising problems, social information processing and social-cognitive skills were extracted as secondary outcomes.
Results:
The systematic search yielded 1918 records, of which the abstracts were screened for eligibility by two independent reviewers. 75 full-text articles were assessed and 18 papers  retained for qualitative synthesis. The majority of studies focused on hostile attribution bias (HAB), with most consistent evidence found in CYP with intellectual disabilities (ID), who interpreted others’ intentions as more hostile and generated more hostile behavioral responses than controls. Moreover, one study provided evidence for an association between negative interpretation bias and self-reported social anxiety in CYP with mild to borderline ID, while an intervention study successfully improved interpretation bias and social anxiety through cognitive bias modification (CBM) in this population. While HAB was not stronger in CYP with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than in typically developing CYP, one study found more negative interpretations of social-threat scenarios in ASD and another study reported a more global attributional style. Seven studies investigated cognitive biases in CYP with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), only one of which found evidence for HAB in this population and two of which instead found an increased tendency to attribute outcomes to their own behaviours. Studies investigating memory and attention bias in CYP with NDD were identified through the search, but none were eligible for review as they did not employ ambiguous interpersonal stimuli.
Discussion and Conclusion:
Only a small number of studies has investigated biased processing of ambiguous interpersonal information in CYP with NDD, despite the potential importance of such biases in understanding the increased risk of developing mental health problems in this population compared to typically developing CYP. Since most consistent evidence for cognitive biases was found in CYP with ID, HAB and interpretation biases relating to social anxiety might be a suitable target for attribution retraining or cognitive bias modification in this population with the aim of reducing externalising or internalising problems.

 

173: The Mediating Role of Maladaptive Schemas in the Predictive Relationship between Previous Victimizations in the Family and Dating Violence Victimization in Adolescents
Esther Calvete, Liria Fernández-González, Izaskun Orue, Erika Borrajo, University of Deusto
Manuel Gámez-Guadix, Autonomous University of Madrid

Introduction:
Several longitudinal studies have supported that adolescents who have been victims of family abuse are at a higher risk of also becoming victims of dating violence.However, an unresolved issue is the mechanisms involved in the perpetuation of victimization and/or re-victimization.This study examined whether exposure to family violence, both in the form of direct victimization and witnessing violence, predicted dating violence victimization in adolescents through maladaptive schemas.
Method:
A sample of 933 adolescents (445 boys and 488 girls), aged between 13 and 18 (M= 15.10), participated in a three-year longitudinal study. They completed measures of exposure to family violence, maladaptive schemas of disconnection/rejection, and dating violence victimization. Results: The findings indicate that witnessing family violence predicts the increase of dating violence victimization over time, through the mediation of maladaptive schemas in girls, but not in boys. Direct victimization in the family predicts dating violence victimization directly, without the mediation of schemas. In addition, maladaptive schemas contribute to the perpetuation of dating violence victimization over time.
Discussion and Conclusion:
Results confirm the transmission of victimization from the family to the partner relationships and that this transmission is partially mediated by maladaptive schemas that can increase risk of revictimization. These findings provide new opportunities for preventive interventions, as maladaptive schemas can be modified.

 

171: The Interplay between Mindfulness, Maladaptive schemas, and Depression in Adolescents
Esther Calvete, Aida Morea, Izaskun Orue, University of Deusto

Introduction:
Transactional models of psychopathology propose that relationships between maladaptive schemas, stress, and depression are bidirectional. This study aimed to examine whether dispositional mindfulness moderates the bidirectional long-term predictive associations between these variables in adolescents. It was hypothesized that mindfulness would buffer the predictive bidirectional associations between cognitions, stress, and depressive symptoms.
Method:
The sample was composed of 1190 high school students from the Basque Country (Spain), who participated in a 2-wave longitudinal study spaced two years apart. The adolescents completed a mindfulness measure at wave 1, and measures of dependent stressors, disconnection/rejection schemas, and depressive symptoms at both waves. 
Results:
Dispositional mindfulness reduced the predictive associationsbetween disconnection/rejection schemas and depressive symptoms at the follow-up. In addition, mindfulness predicted lower scores on maladaptive schemas, stress, and depressive symptoms at follow-up, and reduced the stability of schemas over time. These findings were statistically significant only in boys.
Discussion:
The results suggest that mindfulness based interventions can be used to reduce the negative impact of maladaptive schemas in depressive symptoms in adolescents.

 

168: Social Information Processing as a Mediator between Beliefs Legitimizing Aggression and Dating Violence Perpetration
Fernández-González, L., Calvete, E., Orue, I., University of Deusto

Introduction:
Dating violence is an important and prevalent problem in adolescence worldwide. The understanding of the cognitive and emotional processes involved in violent behavior within adolescent-age dating relationships has great relevance for prevention and intervention. Thus, the main objective of this 3-year longitudinal study was to explore whether biased cognitive processing, more specifically social information processing (SIP) in relation to ambiguous dating situations, mediates the relationship between beliefs legitimizing aggression and dating violence perpetration.
Method:
Participants were 855 high school students (52.7% girls) aged between 13-18 years (M = 14.70, SD = 1.14). Data were collected through self-report measures on three occasions, with a one-year interval between each time point.
Results:
SIP did not act as a mediator between acceptance of dating violence beliefs and dating violence perpetration. Nevertheless, the emergence of anger emotions in dating conflict situations, along with aggression justifying beliefs, were revealed as essential in explaining dating violence. Previous aggression also explained a subsequent higher anticipation of positive consequences for aggressive acts.
Discussion:
Our findings have demonstrated that core beliefs about the acceptance of dating violence predict an increase in the perpetration of dating violence over time. Moreover, the modification of how adolescents process social information in conflict situations, which involve more automatic and proximal cognitive processes, may help to achieve behavioral modification. Specifically, training adolescents to improve their anger management skills seems essential.

 

163: Group Schema Therapy for Children and Adolescents
Maria Galimzyanova, Elena Romanova, St.Petersburg University, Schema Therapy Institute in St.Petersburg

Presentation describes a comparative study of implementation of different Schema Therapy techniques in individual and group sessions with young clients who have learning and communication problems. Special games and art-therapy techniques have been designed and used to facilitate identifying, understanding and correcting dysfunctional modes in children and adolescents.

 

155: Cognitive Biases and Adolescent Worry
Annabel Songco, Elaine Fox, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Worry is a common phenomenon in adolescents, yet some young people experience excessive worries that cause significant distress and interference in their daily lives. This pathological worry is a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders and a range of negative outcomes. Whilst the literature on worry and GAD in adults is well established, there is a relatively small body of research examining the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of adolescent worry. The present study investigated how cognitive biases such as attention, interpretation and memory bias are associated with worry in adolescents. Participants were 504 adolescents aged 11 to 14 (mean age = 12.9) who completed cognitive processing tasks and self-report measures. This study is part of a three-wave longitudinal study (CogBIAS-L-S) and data presented are from time-point one. The results showed that interpretation bias and memory bias were important information processing biases associated with adolescent worry. Negative interpretations of ambiguous social scenarios (beta = 0.12, p <.05) and ambiguous non-social scenarios (beta = 0.10, p <.05) were related to high worry, whilst positive interpretations of ambiguous social scenarios were related to low worry (beta = -0.14, p <.05). In addition, negative memory bias was significantly associated with high worry (beta = 0.18, p <.05). A better understanding of how these cognitive biases operate during adolescence has important implications for identifying the mechanisms to target during treatments and early interventions in adolescent populations.

 

Psychosocial characteristics of young offenders in a detention centre in Spain
Alfonso Arteaga, Raúl Cacho, José J. López-Goñi, Begoña Haro, Javier Fernández-Montalvo, Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud. Universidad Pública de Navarra

Introduction:
Crime in minors is a prevalent phenomenon. The most severe profile is observed in those minors to whom a judicial detention measure is imposed. It becomes necessary to know the characteristics of these young offenders in order to tailor the intervention programmes carried out in detention centres.
Method:
The sample of this study was composed of 102 minors with a judicial measure of internment in a detention centre in Navarra (Spain) between 2000 and 2014. Demographic, psychosocial and personality variables were assessed through the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) and the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI).
Results:
Most of the minors in the sample were men. The most prevalent characteristics were low school performance, previous history of aggressions and violent acts, lack of social and problem solving skills, previous history of assistance by social protection services, school dropout, economic difficulties and ethnic or cultural problems. The most prevalent personality patterns were the following: unruly, dramatizing, egotistic, and forceful. The main expressed concern was social insensitivity. Finally, delinquent predisposition, substance-abuse proneness, and impulsive propensity were the main clinical syndromes found.
Discussion:
The profile found in minors interned in a detention centre reflect a high prevalence rate of disturbing psychosocial and personality characteristics. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account this profile in order to adapt interventions to the specific characteristics of young offenders in intervention programmes in detention.