79: Verbal interaction patters in clinical contexts with severe and persistent mental illnesses diagnosed participants.
Alejandra Álvarez-Iglesias, Jesús Alonso-Vega, Imanol Campo and María Xesús Froxán-Parga, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Introduction: Severe and persistent mental illnesses (SPMI) -schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, bipolar disorders and personality disorders- are associated with different degrees of disability depending on the difficulties for their autonomous development, which requires a large amount of resources not only by the caregivers but also by society. These problems suppose a great economic cost and generate a great suffering not only to the people who present it but also to those who are around him. Psychological interventions have been introduced over the years in health systems to treat these types of problems. However, the learning processes -which occur in the verbal interaction and allow clinical change- have been little studied. Method: The aim of this study is to analyze the verbal interaction patters that occur in clinical contexts with severe and persistent mental illnesses diagnosed participants. Sixty-six therapy sessions were recorded in care centers of the public network of social care for people with disabilities. Different cases (n=23) were analyzed, all of them were adults with diagnoses of personality disorders, mood disorders, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. The Verbal Behavior Categorization System for Severe and Persistent Mental Illnesses (VB-CS-SPMI) have been used to register the therapist verbal behavior and the patient verbal behavior. Once the results were obtained, they were analyzed through a sequential analysis. Results: The results obtained show the reciprocal influence between the behaviors of both parties of the intervention: We have witnessed how the more directive the therapist is with regard to the instructions that he/she gives, the better the response the user emits. Further, we have also noticed that the therapist refrains from using punishment following anti-therapeutic verbalizations. This is especially true after the realization that the user will not – or has not – followed the instructions, as well as after expressions of the so-called positive symptoms. Finally, we have seen a certain lack of consistency in the use of different verbalizations categorized within the different hypothetical levels of reinforcement: The therapist sometimes reinforces with the same level of strength both pro-therapeutic and neutral verbalizations, and sometimes even expresses strong reinforcements following anti-therapeutic verbalizations. Discussion: These results may indicate certain similarities between the immediate context in which these problems are maintained, and the therapeutic context. Recalling that these problems may be sustained by avoidance of aversive stimulation and lack of skills to access potent delayed reinforcements, the lack of instructions and the inconsistent use of reinforcement and punishment not only hinders the acquisition of the skills that the person needs, but exposes him/her to an erratic and compassionate context similar to that which keeps problems out of session.
263: To blend or not to blend? Can an app enhance the efficiency and the efficacy of an ACT treatment?
Ellen Excelmans, Learn2ACT
This poster describes the results of a Belgian government sponsored project run in a private practice of psychologists where the added value of the app Learn2ACT in a psychological treatment was examined. The purpose of the app is to provide support outside the therapy sessions. We excepted that treatments would be more efficient and effective. Thanks to the app we could allow more time between the sessions and limit the number of sessions per client and, consequently, reduce our waiting list. Also, because of the extra data provided by the app we could detect problems faster and intervene when necessary.Learn2ACT was received positively. Almost all the clients were willing to use the app (N = 85). The compliance was very high. The therapists, on the other hand, were somewhat more reserved and needed some training and support to integrate this new method into their work. Nevertheless, all of them would recommend the app to their colleagues.Results from surveys (ease of use, efficient use of therapy sessions, feedback on the therapy process, commitment, self-efficacy, crisis-management) will be presented here. Blending ACT with an app didn’t have an effect on the effectiveness of the treatment, but did increase the efficiency of the treatment. Our average number of sessions per client declined with 1 during the project (compared with the same period the year before). This means that we can reach more people. Given the long waiting lists in mental health care, this is an important argument for stimulating blended therapy.
262: Short group CBT with socially anxious university students
Ivanka Zivcic-Becirevic, University of Rijeka, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Psychology; Ines Jakovcic, Gorana Birovljevic, University of Rijeka, University Counseling Center
Introduction: Social anxiety is one of the common problems among university students, affecting between 10% and 12% of them, comparing to 8% in general population, and 28% of the students have elevated results on social anxiety scales. Some of the socially anxious students have difficulties approaching a new group, asking a question during lectures, going to the student restaurant or having a coffee with colleagues, but the most common problem is giving a presentation in front of the group of other students. Anxiety often decreases their academic performance and interferes with their social life, while frequent avoidant behavior may lead to depressive symptoms. As many socially anxious students seek help at university counseling center, there is a need for the effective treatment that would be accessible to the most of them. The goal of this research is to check the effectiveness of the shortened group CBT treatment of social anxiety that is adjusted to the needs of university students. Method: Group CBT treatment, based on Heimberg and Becker model, was conducted with 7 groups of students, (N=48; age 19 to 28). The original treatment package was shortened. Instead of 12 sessions proposed in original treatment package, we have conducted 8 weekly sessions with one follow-up session (after two months). The treatment included the following CBT interventions: psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and in-vivo exposure exercises in the group. Homework assignments were focused on identifying and evaluating negative automatic thoughts, behavioral experiments and in-vivo exposure. Several measures of anxiety were used: Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS, Mattick & Clarke, 1998)), Social Phobia Scale (SPS, Mattick & Clarke, 1998) and subjective assessment of anxiety level at the beginning and at the end of each session (on the scale from 0 to 10). Results: All students showed improvement in all measures. The average result on the both scales was significantly lower, and their self-reported anxiety level at the beginning and at the end of the sessions significantly dropped. Students also report about less avoidant behavior, changes in their thinking, improved functioning in academic and social situations, as well as more motivation for further practice. Conclusion: Shortened version of group CBT for socially anxious university students was successful. It is recommended to use it as adjusted version that is better suited to the students’ needs.
260: Impaired Executive Function in Everyday Life: a Predictor of OCD Relapse?
Nathalie Fournet, Ouafae Achachi, Laboratory of Psychology and NeuroCognition (LPNC), CNRS, UMR 5105, University Savoie Mont-Blanc, F-73011, Chambéry Cedex, France; Arnaud Roy, Jérémy Besnard, Céline Lancelot, Didier Le Gall, Laboratory of Psychology des Pays de la Loire, EA4638, Université Bretagne Loire – Université d’Angers, 49045 Angers cedex 01, France; Martine Bouvard, Laboratory of Psychology and NeuroCognition (LPNC), CNRS, UMR 5105, University Savoie Mont-Blanc, F-73011, Chambéry Cedex, France.
Objectives: In the present study, we set out to establish whether executive function in everyday life is impaired in treatment-naïve obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder who relapsed after cognitive behavioural therapy. Methods: The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version (BRIEF-A) was used to measure executive function in everyday life in three groups of 19 participants: treatment-naïve obsessive-compulsive disorder patients, obsessive-compulsive disorder patients having relapsed after CBT, and healthy controls. Results: The BRIEF-A results revealed an impairment in executive function in the treatment-naïve and relapsed obsessive-compulsive disorder groups, relative to the healthy control group. There was no significant difference in executive function between the two groups of patients. Conclusion: These results show that impaired executive function is not associated with relapse in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder having undergone cognitive behavioural therapy.
259: Cognitive and clinical Insight in Panic Disorder: Relationship to Treatment Outcome in Internet Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Asala Halaj, Asher Strauss, Dina Zalaznik , Isaac Fradkin, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem Israel, Gerhard Anderson, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; David Ebert, Leuphana University Lüneburg , Lüneburg, Germany; Jonathan D. Huppert, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem Israel.
Insight can be divided into two subtypes: clinical and cognitive. Clinical insight can be defined as the degree to which individuals have awareness of the presence and severity of their symptoms. Cognitive insight can be described as the capacity of individuals to evaluate their thoughts by isolating the self from cognitive distortions and considering different perspectives. Researchers have frequently studied cognitive insight in relation to obsessive compulsive disorder; recent literature reviews have suggested that cognitive insight is associated with the severity of symptoms, comorbidity, a long duration of illness, and negative treatment outcomes. However, researchers have hardly examined clinical insight in anxiety disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine cognitive and clinical insight in panic disorder (PD) and their relationship to treatment outcomes and to determine whether insight improves through Internet cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) for PD. In this study, we offered six modules of iCBT for PD to a total of 36 patients diagnosed with PD. We interviewed patients at pretreatment and posttreatment using the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS) to measure cognitive insight and the Scale for the Assessment of Insight (SAI) to measure clinical insight. The patients also completed self-report questionnaires of their symptoms (e.g., the Panic Disorder Severity Scale [PDSS] and Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 [ASI]) pre- and post-intervention. The results indicated that cognitive insight was strongly associated with the severity of panic symptoms at pretreatment (r = .730, p = .673); however, it was not associated with anxiety sensitivity (r = .208, p = .223). Clinical insight was not associated with severity of panic symptoms at pretreatment (r = -.225, p = .291) and anxiety sensitivity (r = -.268, p = .206) at pretreatment. BABS pretreatment total scores were not associated with SAI pretreatment total scores (r = .115, p = .592). In terms of improvement with treatment, there was a significant improvement in BABS total scores (M = 5.0, SD = 4.60) and BABS posttreatment scores (M = 2.3, SD = 2.93) at the .05 level of significance (= 2.30, p = .032, for mean difference 2.7); however, there was not a change in SAI scores (M = 2.9, SD = 2.64) and SAI posttreatment scores (M= 2.70, SD = 2.49) at the .05 level of significant (= .31, p = .758. for mean difference .20). Change in panic symptoms was not correlated with changes in BABS (r= .297, p = .265), and with pretreatment insight (r = .379, p = .133). To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the role of cognitive and clinical insight in the treatment of PD and their relationship to symptom improvement. The results suggest that cognitive insight is associated with decreased severity of symptoms and that the level of insight improved with treatment, and that change in insight is not related to symptom improvement. More research is needed to explore the nature of clinical insight and its relationship with treatment outcome; this would be essential to promote greater understanding of this concept. In addition, further research into the role of both types of insight and their relationship to symptoms and how they may influence treatment of anxiety disorders is needed. These results are promising, and they highlight the importance of gaining a deeper understanding of the concept of insight.
258: The Impact of Failure Coping Behaviours on Well-Being and Academic Outcomes: Development and Validation of a New Failure Coping Measure
Eamon Colvin, Amanda Sinclair, Darcy Santor, University of Ottawa
Introduction: Despite the frequency of academic failure and its potential impact on well-being, relatively little is known about the specific manner in which students cope with failure in the days and weeks following failure. To address this gap, a new measure of failure coping behaviour was developed and validated. Methods: A large sample of undergraduate students (N = 238) completed a new measure of failure coping behaviours, in addition to measures of failure appraisal, depressed mood, academic engagement, academic difficulty, and attitudes towards failure. Principal components analyses, hierarchical regression and structural equation modelling were used to examine the structure, construct validity and incremental utility of the new scales. Results: Results supported the existence of 4 distinctive and internally consistent types of failure coping behaviours: maladaptive task-related behaviours (α = 0.83), adaptive task-related behaviours (α = 0.75), maladaptive socially-focused coping behaviours (α = 0.72), adaptive socially-focused behaviours (α = 0.87). These coping behaviours were significantly related to depressed mood, academic engagement, academic difficulty and attitudes towards failure. The measure also demonstrated incremental validity: compared to an existing measure of failure appraisals, failure coping behaviours explained additional variance in attitudes towards failure, depressed mood, academic engagement and academic difficulty. Discussion: These results support the importance of understanding and targeting the failure coping behaviours of students. Given the impact of failure coping behaviours on well-being and academic outcomes, current efforts to address the stress and mental health difficulties experienced by students might consider including explicit training on how to cope with academic failure.
257: LIVIA-FR: An online unguided self-help intervention for people struggling with interpersonal loss
Anik Debrot, Liliane Efinger, Valentino Pomini, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Losing a close person, either because death or because of separation or divorce, is a uniquely stressful event associated with poor psychological and physical health outcomes. Indicated prevention is effective to help coping with these difficulties. Online therapies are similarly effective to face-to-face therapies for many disorders, including complicated grief. Unguided interventions are promising as they allow to reach a large audience. Brodbeck, Berger and Znoj (2017) developed a German online guided program to prevent the development of complicated grief symptoms, based on cognitive-behavioral therapy elements (LIVIA I). First results indicate positive effects for different degree of symptom severity. However, no such empirically validated program exists in French. Our project has two aims: test the French unguided version of LIVIA I. The second and central aim is to develop a new version of LIVIA (II) including the following elements that should foster adherence and efficacy: a) structure the intervention around the Worden’s 4 Grief Tasks, focusing on both their loss and restoration focus b) use the Goal Attainment Scale to assess participant’s progresses on those tasks c) assess and promote personal and interpersonal resources, partly through promoting interpersonal touch d) Send automated e-mails (reminders, positive reinforcement) e) higher interactivity through animated videos and optional content, and d) a forum for exchanges between participants We will compare the effects of LIVIA I and II at post-intervention and 6 month follow-up on people who subjectively struggle with interpersonal loss. We will present into more details the design and tenets of the project.
254: Insight and Its Relationship to Cognitive Factors and Implicit Theories in Anxiety Disorders
Asala Halaj, Asher Y. Strauss, Jonathan D. Huppert, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Insight and Its Relationship to Cognitive Factors and Implicit Theories in Anxiety Disorders Asala Halaj, Asher Y. Strauss, &Jonathan D. Huppert The Hebrew University of Jerusalem The current literature indicates that insight in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) may be associated with a number of factors, including metacognitive variables such as cognitive flexibility, jumping to conclusions (JTC), and metacognition. The limited evidence of these effects and the similarities between poor insight in OCD and delusions may suggest that these constructs are related to insight in anxiety disorders. Other factors, such as implicit theories (the notion that certain concepts such as beliefs or emotions are malleable (incremental) vs. fixed (entity)), have not been studied in the context of insight. We propose that implicit theories will also be related to insight; therefore, additional research is needed to characterize this relationship. Thus, the aim of this study is to examine the relative contribution of cognitive flexibility, JTC, metacognition, and implicit theories of beliefs and emotions to cognitive insight in pathological anxiety. A total of 200 participants will complete an online questionnaire-based survey that will be distributed via the internet. This study will include participants who score high (> 50) on the trait subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The survey will consist of a probabilistic reasoning task—the beads task (measuring JTC) and a series of self-report questionnaires, including demographics, symptom measures, two measures of insight, cognitive flexibility scale, metacognition questionnaires, and scales to measure implicit theories. We are currently in the process of collecting data, which we will analyze in May 2018. We hypothesize that lower cognitive flexibility is associated with poorer insight. Following previous research showing a positive relationship between metacognition and insight in schizophrenia,we expect to find a positive relationship between low metacognition and poor insight, suggesting that individuals who frequently monitor their internal cognitions may be more likely to notice abnormal cognitions. Based on previous research, we also expect individuals with poor insight to have the tendency to use less data to reach a decision and to have fewer instances of drawing to decision. We also expect to find a positive relationship between entity theories of emotion and thoughts and poor insight. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine insight in pathological anxiety. This study attempts to better define and understand the concept of insight in pathological anxiety, and it may suggest an overlap with cognitive constructs and implicit theories.Determining the roles of cognitive performance and concepts relative to insight may help predict treatment-seeking behavior and treatment outcomes as well as lead to new avenues for improving insight.
253: CBT based group therapy at Institute of Oncology Ljubljana – evaluation of the ongoing clinical programme
Andreja Cirila Škufca Smrdel, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Dept. of Psycho-Oncology, Zaloška 2, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Introduction: Therapeutic groups are the mainstay of the psycho-oncological treatment. We initiated the programme of the supportive-educative group based on cognitive behavioural therapy at our department. The programme comprises of 9 weekly meetings. Patients are entering the group trough the clinical-psychological treatment, mostly following the completion of the oncology treatment – vulnerable and often neglected period regarding experiencing distress, fear of cancer recurrence and coping with the consequences of the cancer treatment. Methods: We evaluated patients, included in the therapeutic groups programme from the beginning of 2016 (different localizations, but predominantly breast cancer patients). The groups followed a predetermined schedule, addressing first relaxation techniques and anxiety control, working on negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional intermediate and basic beliefs, sleep hygiene, problem solving and decision techniques, communication and assertiveness, anger experiencing, mindfulness, concluding with goals setting and time management. At the group beginning and the completion, they had been evaluated using Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) and purposely constructed evaluation questionnaire for identifying the techniques perceived as the most useful in the coping with distress. Results: Due to small sample and individual variations, we have not find differences in observed parameters before and after the group completion to be statistically significant, but the trend pointing at the improvement in the dimensions of depression and anxiety is emerging. Breathing techniques, mindfulness and assertiveness training were highlighted by the patients. Discussion: Although the further evaluation of the ongoing groups is needed, the trend is pointing at the group therapy positive impact. We found, that group therapy placement at the point, where the period of intensive oncological treatment is turning into a psycho-social and professional rehabilitation or surveillance suits the needs of the majority of the patients included.
252: THERAPY 2.0 – eCounselling and Therapeutic Interactions with Digital Natives
Marina Letica Crepulja, Aleksandra Stevanović, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia; Pantelis Balaouras, Gunet Universities Network, Athens, Greece; Björg Jóna Birgisdóttir, Iceland Academy of the Arts, Reykjavik, Iceland; Artemisa Rocha Dores, Polytechnic of Porto, Porto, Portugal; Wolfgang Eisenreich, Science Initiative Lower Austria, Würnitz, Austria; Karin Drda-Kühn, Media K GMBH, Bad Mergentheim, Germany; Nives Hudej, Integra Institute for Development of Human Potentials, Velenje, Slovenia; Hans-Jürgen Köttner, Media K GMBH, Bad Mergentheim, Germany; Evelyn Schlenk, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen, Nürnberg, Germany; Anna Sigurðardóttir, Iceland Academy of the Arts, Reykjavik, Iceland; Regina Silva, Polytechnic of Porto, Porto, Portugal; Tanja Frančišković, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia.
Up to now most activities concerning counselling and therapy with ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) have been limited to applications of personal computers for emails and internet tools. Counsellors and therapists still rely almost exclusively on traditional interaction with their clients (“the couch”). Due to this, especially the younger generation and “digital natives” may not be reached to the full extent, as they have a fundamentally different communication behaviour. The goal of the Therapy 2.0 project is not only to raise awareness of the potentials of ICT based approaches in therapeutic and counselling processes, but also to provide a practical guide to the different ways of how technology can be used, best practice examples, and a mobile application for smartphones. The project is developed by a multi-disciplinary team of mental health and social counselling organisations, education and pedagogic expert partners as well as ICT and multimedia specialists under Erasmus+ program. The most important outputs of the project are: Therapy 2.0 Guidelines enable social, pedagogic and psychologic counsellors, advisers and therapists to deliver counselling or therapy services via technology. Therapy 2.0 Toolbox as a complement to the Guidelines offers a modular range of awareness raising, training and demonstration materials. The Therapy 2.0 e-platform supports the delivery of all material of the project and support online interactive tools. Therapy2.0 mobile application provides greater validity since data are collected in the clients’ natural environment. The program is launched ( https://www.ecounselling4youth.eu/toolbox/main/toolbox.php) and will be demonstrated and discussed.
242: Symptoms of posttraumatic stress, psychological adjustment and post-traumatic growth and among cancer patients and survivors: The indirect effect of psychological flexibility
Marco Pereira, Center for Research in Neuropsychology and Cognitive and Behavioral Intervention (CINEICC); Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; Tiago Gonçalves, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; Tiago Paredes , Center for Research in Neuropsychology and Cognitive and Behavioral Intervention (CINEICC); Liga Portuguesa Contra o Cancro Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; Maria Cristina Canavarro, Center for Research in Neuropsychology and Cognitive and Behavioral Intervention (CINEICC); Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Introduction: Cancer is often considered a traumatic event that may encompass the experience of symptoms of posttraumatic stress, which may compromise patient’s well-being over the course of illness and beyond, as well as their emotional regulation. Because psychological flexibility has been considered an important mechanism in psychological functioning, in this exploratory study we examined if the association between symptoms of posttraumatic stress, psychological adjustment and posttraumatic growth (PTG) and among cancer patients and survivors was mediated through that process, and whether this mediation was moderated by disease stage (cancer vs. survivorship). Method: This cross-sectional study comprised 73 participants (39 cancer patients in treatment and 34 cancer survivors), mostly female (78.1%) and with a mean age of 60.10 years. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires assessing symptoms of posttraumatic stress, psychological flexibility, symptoms of anxiety and depression, quality of life (QoL), and posttraumatic growth. Results: Symptoms of posttraumatic stress were significantly associated with reduced psychological adjustment, but not with PTG. Higher levels of psychological flexibility were significantly associated with better psychological adjustment, but not with PTG. The pattern of associations was similar for cancer patients and survivors. Psychological flexibility was a significant mediator of all associations, with exception of Environmental QoL and PTG. No moderated mediation of disease stage was found. Discussion: Our findings reinforce the usefulness of psychological flexibility as a health promoting variable, considering its association with better psychological adjustment. These results also highlight the importance of implementing psychological interventions aiming at developing acceptance in cancer patients, regardless of disease stage.
241: Understanding the importance of attachment in the experiences of stigma and shame of people living with HIV: The role of emotion regulation processes
Marco Pereira, Alexandra Martins, Catarina Chaves, Maria Cristina Canavarro, Center for Research in Neuropsychology and Cognitive and Behavioral Intervention (CINEICC), Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Introduction: Stigma and shame are negative markers of the experience of living with HIV. Emotion regulation is an important factor of individuals’ psychological well-being, which may be shaped by attachment orientations. However, evidence has yet to be established among people living with HIV (PLWH). In this study, we examined the role of emotion regulation processes (self-compassion and distress tolerance) in the association between attachment, stigma and shame among PLWH. Method: This cross-sectional study comprised 95 adults with HIV (53.7% male; mean age = 41.65 years). Participants completed an online survey, which included self-reported questionnaires assessing attachment (Experiences in Close Relationships - Relationship Structures), stigma (Stigma Scale Revised), shame (Other as Shamer Scale), self-compassion (Self-Compassion Scale), and distress tolerance (Distress Tolerance Scale). Results: Low attachment-related anxiety and avoidance were significantly associated with lower self-compassion and higher ability to tolerate distress, as well as higher levels of HIV-related stigma and shame. Low self-compassion and high distress tolerance were significantly associated with higher levels of stigma and shame. Self-compassion mediated the association between attachment-related orientations and shame, and between attachment-related avoidance and stigma. Distress tolerance was not a significant mediator. Discussion: Our findings indicate that PLWH with higher attachment-related anxiety and/or avoidance reveal lower levels of stigma and shame, especially when they have greater ability to be self-compassionate. Self-compassion may be an important emotion regulation process in understanding the experiences of stigma and shame, and support the development and practice of compassion-focused therapy, for which there is emergent evidence in the HIV context.
236: Clinical Effects of Abnormal Neurodevelopment and Substance Use Over Memory in First Psychotic Episodes IN FIRST PSYCHOTIC EPISODES
lberto Royo, Mar Mamano, María Calderón, Silvia Gayete, Anna Giné, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu. Sant Boi de Llobregat. Barcelona. España. CIBERSAM; Montse Dolz², Hospital Sant Joan de Déu de Barcelona. Esplugues de Llobregat. Barcelona. España; Grupo GENIPE,GENIPE es un grupo de investigadores multidisciplinario: Araya S, Arteaga M, Autonell J, Baños I, Bañuelos M, Barajas A, Barceló M, Borrás M, Busquets E, De Miquel L, Dolz M, Elias M, Espezel I, Fargas A, Foix A, Fusté M, Godrid M, González O, Granell Ll, Haro JM, Martínez R, Miñambres A, Muñoz D, Nogueroles R, Ochoa S, Pardo M, Planella M, Pelaez T, Peruzzi S, Rivero S, Rodriguez MJ, Sammut S, Sánchez M, Sánchez B, Tabuenca P, Urbano D, Usall J y Villalta V.; Susana Ochoa, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu. Sant Boi de Llobregat. Barcelona. España. CIBERSAM
INTRODUCTION: Scientific literature notes that memory is one of the most altered cognitive areas in a First Psychotic Episode. The aim of the study is to link memory deficits with neurodevelopment variables and substance abuse. METHOD: Cross-sectional study with a total sample of 91 clinical subjects diagnosed with a First Psychotic Episode. Inclusion criteria: two or more psychotic symptoms; 7-65 range age; less than 6 months since first contact with mental health services. Assessment instruments used were: a substance use test, TAVEC, NES. Statistical test used was Student t-test. RESULTS: worse punctuations in recent memory in the first learning trial of a word list show a significant correlation with punctuations in the NES test (p=0.03); after the fifth learning trial of a word list, the results reveal that recent memory has a positive significant correlation with cannabis use (p=0.037) and a negative significant correlation with coffee use (p=0.004); and the number of remembered words in the set of five trials showed a significant correlation with cannabis use (p=0.015) and NES test (p<0.000). In reference to short-term memory, results show a positive significant correlation with cannabis use (p=0.032); in long-term memory there is a negative significant correlation with coffee use (p=0.045); and a long-term recognition task appears to correlate in positive significant way with the NES test (p=0.042). DISCUSSION: Memory is altered in people with a First Psychotic Episode, and this memory alteration is linked with neurodevelopmental impairments and with a higher use of cannabis and a lower use of coffee.
223: Why should we use other methods than self-reported measures? The example of perfectionism
Julie Rivière, Thierry Kosinski, & Céline Douilliez, PSITEC Lab, University of Lille
Introduction:In psychopathology research, one the most popular method of conducting research is questionnaires, in clinical and sub-clinical samples. When one seeks to evaluate psychopathological symptoms, personality traits or psychological processes, there are many validated questionnaires, used by researchers and clinicians. They are a convenient way to obtain information from a target population, easy to collect and to analyse. However, it is established that the self-reported measurement method includes a risk of biases, and in recent years, several researchers have focused on alternative methods. In this presentation, we will take the example of perfectionism, which can be defined as the tendency to establish and maintain very high performance standards or personal goals, as well as a strong tendency towards self-criticism (Burns, 1980). There are more than 15 self-reported questionnaires that evaluate perfectionism as a general construct, in addition to several questionnaires focused on specific domains, such as sport, performance, parenting, or physical appearance. The large majority of studies examining the links between perfectionism and psychopathological symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders) or more general outcomes (e.g., well-being, stress, rumination) used self-reported measures (for a review, see Egan et al., 2011).Moreover, most of them are cross-sectional and correlational. While self-reported measures method is still used a lot in psychopathology research, there is some unwillingness about the exclusive use of questionnaires for two major reasons: the biases of the questionnaires, and the fact that cross-sectional correlational studies using questionnaires are not appropriate for making causal inferences about the link between variables. Those pitfalls need to be overcome in order to fine-tune our understanding of the way perfectionism contributes to psychopathology. Objectives:Using research on perfectionism as an example, the aims of this presentation are twofold. First, we will describe various types of biases in questionnaires and some possible alternatives to this method (i.e., implicit measures and behavioural measures). Second, we will present the idea that while cross-sectional correlational studies are not appropriate for making causal inferences, using questionnaires have some advantages, and that self-reported measures could be used in alternatives to the cross-sectional studies (i.e., longitudinal studies and ecological momentary assessment method). Discussion/Conclusion:These conclusions point out research and clinical implications about the self-reported measures and their alternatives, mainly in research about perfectionism and more generally in psychopathology research.
215: The Impact of Schema Modes on Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: The Mediator Role of Emotion Regulation Difficulties
Gülşah Durna, Psychology Department of Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir, Turkey; Selva Ülbe, Psychology Department of Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir, Turkey; A. Esin Yılmaz, Psychology Department of Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir, Turkey
In recent years, non-suicidal self-injury (e.g., banging, hair pulling, pinching etc.) has become clinically significant condition especially among adolescents and young adults. However, uncertainty regarding the mechanisms underlying the self-injury is still ongoing. In few studies schema modes, considered as emotional and cognitive patterns shaping an individual’s behaviors, were found to be related to the age of onset, duration and number of self-injurious behaviors. Furthermore, the self-injurious behaviors were found to have some maladaptive emotion regulatory functions such as reducing negative feelings and thoughts and avoiding self-punishment. However, such maladaptive strategies might cause schemas developed in childhood to become dysfunctional in adulthood. In this regard, the present study aimed to investigate the mediator role of emotion regulation difficulties on the relationship between schema modes and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior. The sample will consist of at least 500 university students. The instrument set will include Demographic Information Form, Schema Mode Inventory, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Inventory of Statements about Self-injury. Correlation and mediation analyses will be conducted to evaluate the hypotheses. The results will be discussed within the scope of related literature. The findings of planned research will contribute to the literature by displaying how difficulties in emotion regulation have an intermediary function in the relationship between schema modes and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior. The understanding of the functions of these behaviors will provide important implications for the development and implementation of relevant treatment strategies.
214: Distinct Groups of Women who experienced violence: The Role of Emotional Processing and Self- Esteem in Relations with Depression
Cennet Yastıbaş, Mete Sefa Uysal, Duygu Güngör Culha, Dokuz Eylul University
The negative discourse and violence tendency against women have been increasing recent years in Turkey. Violence against Turkish women by male partners is pervasive and the rate of physical and sexual violence was found around 39%. Although psychological violence is also a significant violence type that have impact on women's daily lives, it has taken little attention. Furthermore, the rate of psychological violence against women was found 44% in Turkish research. Types of violence could be seen together that means many women are exposed to multiple type of violence including physical, sexual and psychological. The fact remains that there has been little clear information of the effects of distinct violence on abused women. It has been asserted that women who suffered from violence by male partners faced a number of mental health problems especially depression. Violence as a distressing emotional event may have not been properly emotional processed and they may be unable to absorb emotional disturbances so that it might be result in experiencing more negative emotions. Besides, violence could give harm to women’s self-esteem. Low level of self-esteem might be an important factor to experience depressed mood. Little is known about the inter-relationship of violence and depression. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to examine patterns of violence against women and then to explore the relationship between violence and depression and emotional processing and self-esteem based on women class memberships. 200 female undergraduate university students will be participated. Pforile of Psychological Abuse of Women, Physical and Sexual Abuse Inventory, Emotional Processing Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem and Beck Depression Inventory are recruited. The statistical analysis will be carried out through MPlus and Latent Gold Programs. The data collection and analysis will be completed at beginning of May, 2018. It is expected that women who experience multiple type of violence together will have higher level of depression than distinct type of violence. In addition, violence will negatively impact on self-esteem and emotional processing of women. In other words, it is expected that self-esteem and emotional processing will be meditors in relation between violence and depression. It is believed that the findings of the present study will contribute to theoretical understanding of the dynamics of violence and also will have important clinical implications. The intervention programs should take into consideration of self-esteem enhancement and emotion focused techniques should be entegrated in order to improve mental health of abused women.
210: What do you think your emotions are telling you? Development of a measure tapping dysfunctional emotional meanings
Gonzalo Hervas, Sofia Benito, Rocio Florido, Complutense University of Madrid
Introduction. Based on previous research highlighting that self-devaluative dysphoric experience predicted poorer depressive course (Park, Goodyer, & Teasdale, 2005), we explored individual differences in personal meanings associated with several self-relevant emotions (e.g., guilt, rejection, loneliness, embarrassment…). For example, some individuals can interpret guilt as a message saying “You are a bad person” (dysfunctional meaning), while others can interpret the same emotion as “You made something wrong that hurt others” (functional meaning). The aim of the present research was to develop and validate a new scale tapping dysfunctional meanings, the Dysfunctional Emotional Meanings Scale (DEMS). Method. Based on the clinical observations of several judges, a set of items describing dysfunctional meanings associated with self-relevant emotions was developed. Then, the scale, along with other questionnaires, was administered to a total of 303 participants, using a snowball methodology. Results. The psychometric properties of the scale were very good. Internal consistency and convergent validity were very good. Moreover, incremental validity was tested and results showed that dysfunctional meanings predicted rumination over and above the rest of the variables including self-esteem. Discussion. The potential value of the scale for research as well as for clinical settings will be discussed. For example, when an individual exhibits extreme dysfunctional meanings, as measured by the scale, it can be useful to work on renovated, adaptive emotional meanings.
209: A Program for Increasing Well Being in Victims of Terrorism
Gonzalo Hervas, Carolina Marín, María Crespo, Mar Gómez-Gutiérrez, Manuel J. Rodríguez-Abuin, Carmelo Vazquez, Complutense University of Madrid
Introduction. Although barely studied, severely affected victims of terrorism do not always recover adequate levels of well-being even after receiving psychological treatment. Due to the important implications of having chronic low well-being levels, and for ethical reasons, there appears to be a need of promoting well-being in these victims. Method. Based on previous work on applied Positive Psychology, we designed an intervention protocol in order to improve well-being of victims that, after going through a standard psychotherapy, did not reach adequate levels of well-being. The goals of the intervention were: (a) increase the frequency, intensity and range of positive emotions; (b) develop key areas of well-being as relatedness, self-acceptance, life meaning, among others, and (c) promote perception of benefits and the development of a positive identity. In this presentation we will describe main ingredients included in the protocol as for example: working with positive emotions as pride, admiration or gratitude, increase savoring skills as well as positive emotions labeling skills, increase self-forgiveness and self-acceptance, exploring personal values for increasing life meaning, develop meaningful goals, promote the awareness and use of personal strengths, among others. A positive reminiscence intervention was included at the end of the intervention in order to increase posttraumatic growth, and to develop a more unified and constructive life narrative. Results. It was found that the intervention fostered participants’ well-being after follow-up. Since they are explained in another presentation, results will be just summed up. Discussion. Specific difficulties observed in this population (e.g., difficulties to project themselves into the future, victim identity) and how to overcome them will be discussed. Further, advantages of using a group format and how to fully benefit from it will be also addressed.
207: The more thoughts about thoughts, the more social anxiety and self-focused attention
Yasemin Meral, Gamze Çarboğa , Atacan Küçükoğlu, Department of Psychology, Izmir University of Economics, Turkey
Introduction: Cognitive and metacognitive processes are important maintaining factors in social anxiety. The cognitive aspect includes beliefs about the self as a social object and cognitive processes, such as self-focused attention (SFA). On the other hand, the metacognitive aspect includes beliefs about thinking, which organize and determine individuals’ responses to their experiences. Several studies show that social anxiety is associated with heightened SFA. Furthermore, research suggest a positive relationship between metacognitive beliefs and social anxiety, but results remain inconsistent. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between metacognitions and self-focused attention in social anxiety. Methods: 155 high (female=105, male=50) and 150 low (female=89, male=61) socially anxious individuals from Izmir University of Economics completed questionnaires measuring metacognitions (Metacognitions Questionnaire-30), social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale), and self-focused attention (Self-focused Attention Scale). Based on the Liebowitz scale our sample was divided into high and low socially anxious groups. Results: Compared to low socially anxious participants, high socially anxious participants were more engaged in metacognitions and were more self-focused. A main effect for gender indicated that male participants showed higher metacognitions than female participants. However, no such difference was found for SFA. Furthermore, higher SFA was predicted by higher metacognitions. Discussion: The current study highlights again the crucial role of SFA as a maintaining factor in social anxiety. Moreover, our results underline the positive association between metacognitions and social anxiety. Conclusion: Cognitive and metacognitive processes are assumed core factors for developing and maintaining social anxiety. Whereas treatments for social anxiety focus on modifying SFA, metacognitive treatment focus on adaptive response styles to social experiences. Even when there is an overlap between these two processes, understanding the discriminative features might be beneficial for improving treatments for social anxiety. Keywords: metacognitions, self-focused attention, social anxiety, cognitive theory, metacognitive theory
206: What helps against stress? The association between mindfulness and emotion regulation
Yasemin Meral, Damlasu Uyuğ, Department of Psychology, Izmir University of Economics, Turkey
Introduction: Emerging adulthood is a time, in which individuals experience a lot of stress, which is associated with higher anxiety and depression. Indeed, literature shows that mindfulness and adaptive emotion regulation strategies are associated with lower rates of depression and anxiety. Thus, research focuses more on anxiety and depression. However, how stress, mindfulness, and emotion regulation interact with each other remain unclear. Emotion regulation may be one pathway through which mindfulness promotes mental health. The current study examined whether emotion regulation mediates the association between mindfulness and stress in emerging adulthood, which is considered as an age at risk for depression and anxiety. Methods: 156 female and 42 male university students participated in our study and completed self-reported measurements assessing mindfulness (Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised), emotion regulation difficulties (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) and stress (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale. For the current study, only the stress scale was used). Results: Our findings showed that lower mindfulness and difficulties in emotion regulation significantly predicted higher stress levels in university students. Moreover, the association between mindfulness and stress was fully mediated by difficulties in emotion regulation. Discussion: Considering the results of the current study, individuals with higher mindfulness do not necessarily experience less stress, but through adaptive emotion regulation strategies, they may handle stress better. Conclusion: If our results can be replicated and expanded, training mindfulness skills and adaptive emotion regulation strategies in emerging adulthood might help individuals to cope better with stress, which on the other hand might act as prevention for mental disorders. Keywords: mindfulness, emotion regulation, stress, emerging adulthood
200: Effects of cognitive and metacognitive training on adults presenting ADHD
Amélie Dentz,Chantal Martin Soelch, University of Fribourg University
Clinical guidelines recommend non-pharmacological treatments in conjunction with medication for the treatment of ADHD (Cortese et al., 2015; European ADHD Guidelines Group, 2013). Cognitive training is one type of non-pharmacological treatment used in ADHD (Cortese et al., 2015; European ADHD Guidelines Group, 2013). Cognitive training improves cognitive deficits through specific exercises during intensive training sessions (Rutledge, Bos, McClure, & Schweitzer, 2012). Cognitive training is based on principles of brain plasticity with the aim to train cognitive function and to improve cognitive deficits in ADHD (Klingberg et al., 2010). Dovis, Van der Oord, Wiers, & Prins (2015) indicated that transfers to other deficits might be increased by tailoring cognitive function training, adding more ecological training tasks and metacognitive session. Cognitive and metacognitive training effects have been rarely studied among adults and adolescents with ADHD (Gropper, 2014, Dentz et al., 2017). The primary objective of this pilot study and meta-analysis was to examine the effects of cognitive training and metacognitive program among adults with ADHD on ADHD symptoms. A secondary objective was to examine the generalization of effects to attentional, executive functions and inhibition. Participant will train with Presco (Scientific Brain Training Pro, 2008). Metacognition will also be included. Cognitive training lasts five weeks and takes place at home. Five sessions of one hour of metacognition will be added. First result and case study are presented. Future clinical application are discussed.