Chair: Steven Hollon, Vanderbilt University
10:30 Development of rational emotive self determination scale (RESD) for work-life
Murat Artiran, Istanbul Arel University
10:45 Repetitive negative thinking, emotional regulation and inhibition in depressive
Monika Kornacka,University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw
& Université de Lille
Céline Douilliez, Université de Lille
Izabela Krejtz, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw
11:00 Do we experience what we expect? The role of expectations in the development of
Tobias Kube, Philipps-University of Marburg & University of Koblenz-Landau
Julia Anna Glombiewski, Philipps-University of Marburg & University of Koblenz-
Winfried Rief, Philipps-University of Marburg
11:15 Mediating factors of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and depression
Sabrina Boger, Thomas Ehring, Gabriela Werner, LMU Munich
11:30 Treatment Preference for OCD: What can be done to improve access to good quality
CBT for those who do not respond?
Josie Millar, University of Bath, UK
Paul Salkovskis, University of Oxford, UK
1) Development of rational emotive self determination scale (RESD) for work-life
Murat Artiran, Istanbul Arel University Psychology Department
Purpose of the research is not only to develop a scale but also describe a new conceptualization under the umbrella of both Rational Emotive Behavioral Theory (REBT) and Self-determination Theory (SDT). Called as ‘three psychological needs irrational beliefs’ try to bring two definitions into one. Cognitive behavior therapy is a widely accepted and continuously developed therapeutic approach in psychotherapy field. The aim of the study is to bring a motivation theory to CBT interventions and make them work together. Although the study present some new concepts in psychotherapy, ‘three psychological needs irrational beliefs’ is not a first attempt to define. Rational Emotive Self Determination Scale for Work Life (RESD-W) is a follower of RESD-A (Rational Emotive Self Determination Scale (RESD) for Adolescents). Since RESD-A studies’ outcomes promising, this research aimed to widen the scope of the conceptualization in different areas such as work life. The scale’s aim is that among employers, measuring irrational beliefs in the light of autonomy, competence, and relatedness as basic psychological needs which underlined in SDT. Four studies were conducted to confirm the factor structure of the RESD-W. The psychometric properties of 16 items of RESD-W were tested. The study conducted with four different samples: for exploratory factor analyses (N=148), for confirmatory factor analyses (N=162), test-retest reliability (N=38), for concurrent validity (N=167). In the study, in terms of the validity and reliability analyzes confirmed theoretical expectations and have yielded positive results. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that this scale yielded three factors. Reliability analyses showed internal consistency coefficient is .81. Test-retest analysis has provided sufficient evidence that RESD can make stable measurements. In order to confirm its concurrent validity, RESD was tested with, first, Basic Psychological Needs Scale (BPNS) and The short version of the Brief Symptom Inventory. The results showed that correlation between RESD and these two scales is ranging from weak to medium. According to these promising results, the scale may suggest a different approach to cognitive behavior therapy in the means of integrating both REBT and SDT theoretical frameworks. Keywords: Self-Determination Theory, positive psychology, CBT, REBT, irrational beliefs.
2) Repetitive negative thinking, emotional regulation and inhibition in depressive patients
Monika Kornacka, Céline Douilliez, Izabela Krejtz, MK & IK - SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland; MK & CD - Univ. Lille, EA 4072 - PSITEC - Psychologie: Interactions Temps Émotions Cognition, F-59000 Lille, France
Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is define as dwelling on one or more negative issues that is perceived as difficult to control. It is responsible for risk, recurrence and relapse in depression (Watkins, 2008). Recent studies suggest that inhibition impairment might be responsible for the maintenance of RNT (Daches & Mor, 2013). The link between RNT and inhibition was previously assessed in the laboratory setting only (Yang et al., 2017). Moreover, any of the previous studies linking RNT to inhibition did not distinguish between abstract and concrete, a more adaptive type of RNT (Watkins, 2008). One of the challenges of the current research was to evaluate how RNT, mood, and inhibition interplay in patients’ everyday life and to assess the distinctive impact of abstract and concrete RNT on inhibitory resources.
In the first study, we used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to measure the three aforementioned variables. For 7 consecutive days, 30 participants suffering from major depressive disorder and 30 healthy controls used EMA application for mobile devices. The application randomly sent participants the set of questions once in every 2,5h gap between 9 a.m. and 9:30 p.m. Mood and RNT were assessed 5 times a day. The inhibition was assessed once a day in the evening with Emotional Stroop Task. In the second study, we induced, in the laboratory, either abstract RNT, concrete RNT or distraction. Following the induction, participants’ eye movements were recorded while their inhibition was assessed with an antisaccade task. Participants’ affect and state rumination was controlled at every stage of the experiment. At the beginning of both studies, participants filled in a series of questionnaires assessing trait RNT and depressive/anxious symptomatology.
The studies are in the process of gathering data. Analyses in the first study will include multilevel modeling with each observation nested in days (level 1) and in participants (level 2). In the study 2, analyses will include comparisons between the three experimental groups on affect, inhibition efficiency and eye-tracking measures. Discussion The role of inhibition in RNT maintenance and the clinical perspective of using executive functions training in RNT-focused interventions will be discussed.
The study 1 is, to our knowledge, the first to explore the relation between RNT and inhibition in participants’ everyday life. The study 2 should provide some valuable information on how maladaptive and adaptive RNT affect inhibition.
3) Do we experience what we expect? The role of expectations in the development of depression
Tobias Kube, Philipps-University of Marburg, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Germany; University of Koblenz-Landau, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Germany;Julia Anna Glombiewski, Philipps-University of Marburg, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Germany; University of Koblenz-Landau, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Germany;Winfried Rief, Philipps-University of Marburg, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Germany.
Inspired by Beck’s cognitive model of depression, numerous studies have acknowledged the importance of dysfunctional cognitions (i.e. core beliefs, intermediate beliefs, automatic thoughts) in the development of depressive symptoms. Recent studies have specified the role of different types of cognitions for the course of depression, and research suggests that expectations might be a particularly important subgroup of cognitions because expectations represent cognitions with clear relevance for future events or experiences. We conducted three empirical studies to further investigate the role of expectations in the development of depressive symptoms.
In Study 1, we aimed to integrate two important types of expectations into the cognitive model of depression: situation-specific dysfunctional expectations (SDEs) and dispositional optimism (DO). Using a clinical sample (N = 95), we hypothesized that SDEs as expectations with a high level of situational specificity would mediate the effects of DO and intermediate beliefs (IBs) on depressive symptoms. In Study 2, we aimed to provide further evidence for the suggested mediational role of SDEs in the development of depressive symptoms. For this purpose, we examined 128 healthy individuals in a one-year prospective study. In Study 3, we examined both a clinical (N = 91) and a healthy sample (N = 80). In this study, we examined whether SDEs rather than other well-established cognitive variables predict depressive symptoms. In particular, it was hypothesized that SDEs rather than more global cognitions (that is, IBs, DO, and generalized expectations for negative mood regulation (NMR)) predict depressive symptoms five months later.
Results of Study 1 indicate that IBs had no significant direct effect on depressive symptoms (β = .096, BCa 95% CI [−.168, .364]), but a significant indirect effect via SDE (β= .172, BCa 95% CI [.051, .355]). DO had both a significant direct effect on depressive symptoms (β = −.239, BCa 95% CI [−.449, −.038]) and significant indirect effect via SDE (β = −.124, BCa 95% CI [−.248, −.043]). Results of Study 2 confirmed this mediational model: IB and DO had no direct effects on depressive symptoms; instead, the effects of IBs (b = .160, BCa 95% CI [.039, .300]) and DO (b = -.100, BCa 95% CI [-.192, -.035]) on depressive symptoms were fully mediated via SDEs. In Study 3, it was found for both the healthy sample (β = .497; p = .031) and the clinical sample (β = .473; p = .028) that SDEs were the only significant predictor of depressive symptoms among all cognitive variables.
The present studies consistently provide evidence for a mediational role of SDEs in the development of depressive symptoms. That is, dysfunctional global beliefs elicit negative situational expectations which in turn lead to more pronounced symptoms of depression. When comparing different predictors of depression, it seems that situational expectations rather than global beliefs predict depressive symptoms.
These studies highlight the importance of expectations in the development of depressive symptoms. Due to their high level of situational specificity, especially SDEs might be an effective target for cognitive-behavioral interventions.
4) Mediating factors of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and depression
Sabrina Boger,Thomas Ehring, Gabriela Werner, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, LMU Munich, Germany
Childhood Maltreatment (CM) has been discussed as a risk factor for the development and maintenance of depression. There is first evidence of a relationship between CM, especially emotional abuse and neglect, and adult depression with regard to symptom severity, earlier onset and a more chronic course of the disorder. However, processes that might underlie this relationship remain unclear. It has been shown that various factors, e. g. biological factors, play a role in the relationship between CM and affective disorders, but research investigating the influence of psychological factors like social interactions, emotion regulation, sleep disturbances, attachment or individual posttraumatic symptoms is still rare.Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine in a large sample of inpatients with the diagnosis of depression whether there is a relationship between the number, type and severity of traumatic experiences on the one hand and the severity and course of the depression on the other hand. In addition, possible mediators of the association, that indicate a poor processing of traumatic experiences, in particular PTSD symptoms, trauma-related intrusions and dissociative symptoms were examined. Furthermore we consider mediators, that can be seen as a result of traumatic experiences and contribute to the maintenance of depression, such as dysfunctional cognitions, sleep disorders, emotion regulation and attachment problems. The contribution presents the results of the study.
5) Treatment Preference for OCD: What can be done to improve access to good quality CBT for those who do not respond?
Josie Millar, University of Bath, UK
Paul Salkovskis, University of Oxford, UK
CBT is an effective treatment for OCD, however a large proportion of clients remain symptomatic following the completion of treatment, with the average symptom reduction across studies being 48% (Abramowitz et al., 2002).
The UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines recommend an intensive version of CBT be offered to individuals who have not responded to one or more trials of CBT or one or more adequate trials of a SSRI or Clomipramine (NICE, 2005).
Little research however has examined the acceptability of time-intensive CBT, how accessible it is and the views of those who may be offered treatment in this format, particularly in comparison to weekly CBT.
A series of questionnaires were used to investigate participant’s attitudes towards and beliefs about receiving CBT for OCD delivered in either a weekly or time-intensive format. Participant’s beliefs about the perceived advantages and disadvantages of intensive CBT were examined. A questionnaire developed specifically for this study sought to understand how participants perceived various elements of a time-intensive approach would work in practice. Participant’s readiness to change, self-efficacy and previous treatment history were examined in relation to their preference for treatment.
100 participants with OCD took part in this study.
The results of this study will be discussed with regards to improving access to good quality CBT for OCD, for those who are often left feeling that nothing can be done to help them after treatment has been unsuccessful. Important directions for future research will be discussed.